Slang -- however you define it -- is a term that conveniently designates words and phrases diverging markedly in social ambiance, use, and style from those of the standard lexicon. Public and professional interest in slang has never been greater than it is today. The purpose of this and succeeding volumes is, through the use of established historical methods, to shed fresh light on the slang element in American English and, by so doing, to better our understanding of American English as a whole.
As a rough-and-ready label for an abstraction that, as our epigraphs suggest, encourages as much appreciation as dispraise, slang has frequently inspired discordant, sometimes antagonistic, definitions. The public employs the term as a simple synonym for a subjectively "bad" English, and it may well be that the word most often appears in the parental admonition "Don't use slang!" For close to two and a half centuries popular definitions of slang have embraced every variety of unconventional or unfamiliar English, from the lingo of felons to the language of philosophers. Yet no commonly accepted definition of slang has won much favor among linguists, who mostly regard the boundaries between slang and other levels of discourse as too insubstantial for analysis. And one can hardly blame them. For it is true that, taken together, slang and its associated epithets argot and cant are in practice a terminological jumble, each frequently laden with negative overtones and each one ready to serve as a synonym of the others. Yet differing interpretations of the word slang do not come about because it designates an exterior phenomenon of ineffable or elusive qualities; they arise instead because the interpreters -- dictionary makers, schoolteachers, and arbiters of diction -- differ in their preconceptions about language, view language from varying angles, and examine it for very different purposes. Items as dissimilar as snack bar, ain't, gentrification, sandwich, bikini, redcoat, date rape, motel, and wuss have now and again been cited as slang or former slang by various commentators, as has the interjectional say! ("Oh, say, can you see by the dawn's early light...?"), a claim that, lumped with all the others, leaves the useful word slang with scarcely any meaning at all.
In deriving a definition of slang so as to limit the scope of the present work and to keep its contents as much of a piece as possible, we have tried to work within a judicious tradition established over the past hundred years by W. D. Whitney1, James A. H. Murray, Henry Bradley, and others -- lexicographers whose judgments rested upon a meticulous consideration of actual usage, which in lexicography is the only convincing evidence there is. We reject the practice that attaches the name of "slang" to whatever is new or popular in the way of language.
In this dictionary slang is conceived of in a rather limited way as a social and stylistic subset of the larger informal vocabulary of U.S. English. Slang may thus be briefly defined:
But a definition of slang that confines itself to stylistic traits such as these will necessarily remain inadequate. Slang has a vital social dimension as well: it turns up especially in the derisive speech play of youthful, raffish, or undignified persons and groups; and partly owing to this and partly because of the unconventional images slang often evokes, the use of slang often carries with it striking overtones of impertinence or irreverence, especially for idealized values and attitudes within the prevailing culture. Often too, the use of slang suggests, as standard speech cannot, an intimate familiarity with a referential object or idea (compare, for example, the difference between professional dancer and hoofer, wait tables and sling hash, prison and the joint, beer and suds, intellectual and wonk).
The use of slang also suggests something about the slangster's orientation to the interlocutor. It implies that the other person identifies fully with the speaker's attitudes. Thus, the English
با سلام خدمت شما عزیزان!
ممنون که به جامعه ی مجازی زبان تشریف اوردید!
این جامعه ی مدرن با خدماتی از قبیل دانلود کتاب های الکترونیکی و اصطلاح های عامیانه انگلیسی و همینطور مطالب زیبا و پند اموز به همراه شعر های جذاب انگلیسی و متون کاملا انگلیسی به همراه متون دو زبانه (انگلیسی به همراه ترجمه به فارسی) و... محیطی کاملا اموزشی را برای علاقه مندان به این زبان بین المللی فراهم آورده است.
اکنون به خود می بالیم و افتخار می کنیم که تونستیم محیطی آموزشی ولی جذاب را فراهم آوریم تا شما عزیزان ضمن مدرنیزه کردن احساسات و رفتارتان با کمک گرفتن از زبان انگلیسی ، زبان انگلیسی را به عنوان زبان دوم به خود بشناسانید!
به امید اینکه با نقطه نظراتتان و همینطور از همه مهمتر انتقادات و پیشنهادات خود مارا در بهبود این جامعه ی مدرن یاری فرمایید!